The only animal organ success story that is brought up by Williams took place when two individuals received transplants of pig livers. Therefore, motivation to find alternative solutions, even if they would prove ultimately much safer to patients, is very small for several individuals. Of these, a few go on to state that that organ shortages could have be fixed long ago, and in much safer and cost effective ways. Part of the problem is that the FDA has yet to approve any whole animal organ transplants. Further, she states that xenotransplantation is necessary and possibly even superior to human organ transplants because organs from animals are plentiful, whereas human organs cannot meet transplant demands. Some believe that Williams was wrong about xenotransplantation having the potential to be beneficial when she wrote her article in 1996, and some believe that she remains incorrect today. Even now, seventeen years later, xenotransplantation remains an unpracticed procedure far from providing any significant supply of organs.

I agree with you that xenotransplantation has failed and will most likely continue to fail without severe consequences (and even if it were successful we would have to worry about inter-species disease transmission at the very least). On the other hand, others see the wait for xenotransplantation to be perfected, let alone approved, as needlessly lengthy as well. Some approve of the practice of animal organ transplantation and see it as a great way to reduce the lengthy waiting process often required by transplant patients. When liver damage occurs, the organ releases ALT, causing levels of this enzyme to increase. Bone growth causes children and teenagers to have higher levels of this enzyme than adults who have already stopped growing. This test is also useful in people with alcoholism and those who may have been exposed to one of the hepatitis viruses. Its a false belief that humans and all species have anything in common with one another based on things that look similar but are far more different and complicated then they think.

  • Can you bring outside food or beverages
  • 5 years ago from San Diego California
  • Determine the safety and toxicity of this regimen in these patients
  • 3 years ago from USA
  • Barfy Green Stuff (or some other green food–it really doesn’t matter too much what you choose

Additional experiments with humans have been very few, and therefore progress has been limited. McArdle claims that other countries have done this with success. In contrast to every animal organ based study mentioned, not only does human based surgery have a low risk of death, it has also been proven to successfully prolong individuals’ lives. This hardly proves that xenotransplants will decrease the demand for organs, when the only successful operation require twice the normal organ amount. Its been a complete failure so far and will continue to fail with out radical and horrible side effects being implemented. He suggests that maybe why this approach is not being taken in the United States is that research is not being completed solely for the benefit of mankind. The animal organ transplantation process has a whole lot more research that is needed before it can prove beneficial. When liver function declines, this organ does not produce protein as well as it should. The hepatic function panel measures both total protein and albumin to determine if there is a problem with protein production in the liver.

ALT is one of the hepatic function panel components doctors use to determine if there is a problem with the liver. The hepatic function panel includes tests for total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. Lab professionals compare levels of this enzyme with levels of ALT and other hepatic function panel components. Doctors order the liver function panel when they suspect liver dysfunction. Aspartate transaminase, also known as serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, alerts doctors to liver damage caused by hepatitis, alcoholism, and other diseases. This compare allows doctors to make more specific diagnoses than if they used AST levels alone. The liver helps to excrete this waste product from the body, but a decline in liver function allows it to build up in the blood. Protein helps build strong muscles and other tissues. A liver that functions normally helps with the production of protein in the body. Some signs and symptoms of liver problems include dark urine, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, jaundice (yellowing of the skin), light-colored bowel movements, bloody bowel movements, abdominal swelling, fatigue, unusual weight changes, and pain in the abdomen. When bilirubin levels rise, the skin turns yellow (jaundiced) as a result.